+ syllable (initial + vowel + final) + tone
Vietnamese pronunciation is much more difficult than I first anticipated. It is far more difficult than Chinese, and it’s not 100% phonetic to the writing (despite what many teachers claim). There are exceptions to the pronunciation rules, and regional differences that create further confusion.
rounding rhymes, u ô o + m p n t (ng c)*
* must close mouth
Vietnamese uses tones, although it is not considered a “pure” tonal language.